Thyroid disease hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

The Thyroid is a small gland, which is located at the base of the neck. It is a small butterfly shaped gland. This article will describe the thyroid disease, hyperthyroidism  and hypothyroidism treatment in details. The thyroid hormone controls many activities of our body like metabolism and heart beat rate. It produces two types of hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) by using iodine from the food we eat. Initially the gland stores these thyroid hormones and releases them in the blood as they are needed.

What is thyroid disease?

Thyroid gland doses an important job to produce and controlled release of thyroid hormones which controls metabolism. When a healthy thyroid gland works properly, then it maintained the right amount of hormones in the blood to keep the right rate of metabolism. The thyroid gland is monitored & controlled by the pituitary gland, which is located in the center of the skull, below the brain. The Pituitary gland releases its own hormone called thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) when it senses a low or high level of thyroid hormones in blood.  The TSH reaches to the thyroid gland and stimulates it to increase or decrease the supply of hormones as required.

The Thyroid is a medical condition that affects the function of thyroid glands. In some cases the thyroid makes and releases too much thyroid hormone in the body. This condition is called hyperthyroidism.

In some case the gland doesn’t produce required amount of hormones which slow down the metabolic activities. This condition is called hypothyroidism.

What is hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism or overactive thyroid is a condition when the thyroid gland produces high quantities of hormone thyroxine.  Hyperthyroidism can accelerate the metabolic rate, which causes unintentional weight loss and a rapid or irregular heartbeat.

What are the symptoms of Hyperthyroidism?

The symptoms include rapid heartbeat, irregular heartbeat, weight loss, increased appetite, nervousness, anxiety and irritability, sweating, menstrual problem, enlarged thyroid gland, muscle weakness, difficulty in sleeping, frequent bowl movements, skin thinning & brittle hair.

What are the Causes of Hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism can be caused by the following conditions-

  • Graves’ disease.It is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies produced by the immune system which stimulates the thyroid to produce excess quantities T4. It’s one of the most common causes of hyperthyroidism.
  • Plummer’s disease. This form of hyperthyroidism occurs when one or more adenomas of thyroid produce too much T4. An adenoma is a part of the gland that has walled itself off from the rest of the gland, forming noncancerous (benign) lumps that may cause an enlargement of the thyroid.
  • Sometimes thyroid gland can become inflamed after pregnancy, due to an autoimmune condition or for unknown reasons. The inflammation can cause excess thyroid hormone stored in the gland to leak into your bloodstream. Some types of thyroiditis may cause pain, while others are painless.

What is hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) is a medical condition in which thyroid gland doesn’t produce an appropriate quantity of thyroid hormones.

What are the symptoms of Hypothyroidism?

The common symptoms of hypothyroidism are fatigue, Increased sensitivity  to cold, weight gain, dry skin, puffy face, hoarseness, muscle weakness, menstrual problems, slowed heart rate, enlarged thyroid gland, depression, memory loss, hair thinning and hair loss.

What are the causes of Hypothyroidism?

  • Autoimmune disease: An autoimmune disease occurs when the immune system produces  antibodies that attacks on your own body, tissues and organs. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is one of the most common causes of hypothyroidism.  Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder. It is a painless disease; where the body’s cells attack and damage the thyroid gland.
  • Pituitary disorder:Sometimes due to disorder the pituitary gland not produce enough thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) due to this the  hypothyroidism condition develops.
  • Postpartum hypothyroidism: This condition occurs in some women during pregnancy or after childbirth. It’s usually a temporary condition.
  • Iodine deficiency: Iodine is used by the thyroid gland to produce hormones. The iodine is found in iodized salt, seafood & seaweeds.

What is the treatment of thyroid disease, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism? 

Treatments are available for all types of thyroid diseases, if found any symptom them visit to doctor without delay. Doctor will perform some test and identify the disease, whether its hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Surgeries are also an option for worst cases. But if we take proper care with medicines then it will not be serious medical conditions.



Categories: Health

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